Vulcanization and Removal of Lead Acid Batteries

Publish: 2017-06-29  Views: 96

I. Overview

Lead-acid battery technology development 100 years basically no change. Although there have been improvements in chemistry and structure, there is a common factor in the failure of the battery. The reason for this failure is that the accumulation of sulfate on the plate results in failure, and the most effective way to solve these problems is to apply pulsed technology.

Pulse technology helps to eliminate these failures of the battery, it can maintain a high active material response, so that the internal balance of the battery, easy to accept external charge. In this way, the savings caused by the replacement of the various costs associated with the battery.

Second, the technical introduction

Experts predict that: lead-acid batteries as the first in the field of battery power will continue to the next century. But the problem worthy of attention is that most of the battery working state can not meet the needs of today's advanced technology and transportation. Ordinarily, lead-acid battery reaction material can be maintained for 8 years - 10 years or longer, but in fact can not. The average battery life is now 6-48 months. And can only use 48 months of battery only 30%. Most of the batteries are premature aging and failure. A series of problems that affect battery life are due to the accumulation of sulphates, and the most effective way to solve these problems is pulse technology.

As early as 1989 there is the first patent, the use of pulse technology to improve the practicality of the battery to extend battery life. It works: the battery has been to maintain a high activity of the reaction, so that the internal balance of the battery, easy to accept the charge. This technology can provide large discharge capacity, accept charging fast, and can be used permanently. (In other words, to extend battery life)

Now let's take a look at how the pulse technology is beneficial to the battery and what its working principle is. First, let us revisit the working principle of the battery: According to the International Battery Council Handbook 11th Edition: "The battery is an electrochemical principle design category, the battery power generated by the storage of chemical energy in the vehicle and power machinery equipment On the need for batteries, its three main functions are:

(1), power supply to the ignition system, so that the engine starts.

(2), to the engine outside the electrical equipment power supply.

(3), the electrical system plays a regulator role, so that the output smooth and reduce the instantaneous electrical system occurs high pressure. "

The battery consists of two different materials (lead and lead dioxide), which are placed in the sulfuric acid solution to produce a voltage. The active material in the discharge process, the positive electrode lead plate and the sulfate of the electrolyte form PbSO4. At the same time, the active material on the negative plate also produces PbSO4 with the sulfate sulfate. Therefore, the discharge of the positive and negative plates are covered with lead sulfate (PbSO4). The battery is restored by charging it in the opposite direction.

In the charging process, the chemical reaction state is basically the reverse reaction of the discharge. (PbSO4) decomposition on the positive and negative plates becomes the original state, that is, lead and sulfate, the hydrolysis of "H" and "O" atoms, when the separation of sulfate and "H" combined reduced to Sulfuric acid electrolyte.

From the above, the basic working principle of the battery is the energy formed by the chemical reaction process of sulfuric acid and lead for ion exchange. In the energy exchange process, the reaction product - lead sulfate in the plate is "temporary". It is worth noting that, in the process of charging reduction, lead sulfate on the plate can not be completely dissolved and stacked on the plate. This deposit is the remainder of the electrochemical reaction, occupying the position of the plate. That is to say, the effective response material of the plate is decreasing, which is the main cause of battery failure. (Due to lead sulfate lead to battery failure, the popular phenomenon of this phenomenon is - plate salinization)

Plate Saltization Problem: Most battery failures are due to the accumulation of lead sulfate. When the energy of the lead sulfate molecules is greater than a limit low, they dissolve from the plate and return to the liquid state. Then they can accept recharging. But in fact, there is always a part of the sulfate can not return to the electrolyte, but attached to the plate, the final formation of insoluble crystals. Sulfate crystals are formed such that the core energy of the individual sulfate molecules that can not participate in the reaction is in a very low state and that it gradually adsorbs other very low levels of sulfate molecules. When these molecules are stacked and tightly combined, a crystal is formed. This crystal can not be effectively dissolved into the electrolyte. The presence of these crystals, occupy the plate position, so that the plate lost the ability of charge and discharge. So, the plate is covered by this point or this part is equivalent to the dead point.

"The essence of the battery is chemical, and its charging characteristics are often changed by the chemical changes of the battery itself, for example, the sulphate should be a normal chemical reaction product but in an abnormal state," the BCI manual says. , It becomes an excess of substances and become the main problem affecting the chemical reaction, and these excess sulfate in the plate on the accumulation, and long neglected.In addition, the new battery, such as storage time is too long, there will be such a state. When the battery is severely salty, it can not accept the generator's fast and full charge. Similarly, it can not be satisfied with the discharge. With the increase in salinization, the final battery can not accept the charge and discharge failure. 56 page, said: "The charging voltage is affected by the temperature and electrolyte concentration, electrolyte contact plate area, the battery life, the electrolyte purity and other factors affect the salt plate crystallization is very hard, so that the internal resistance increases "

More than 80% of the batteries are due to the accumulation of these salted crystals and cause failure. The speed, area and hardness of these crystals are closely related to the time, the state of charge of the battery, and the life cycle of the energy reserve. The accumulation of salt crystals on the battery is very troublesome. The following cases are inevitable to produce salinization:

1, the battery before the installation and use for a long time shelved storage. In fact, once the battery with sulfuric acid solution began after the chemical reaction and produce salt. Therefore, the new battery will be shelved, resulting in the installation of new tools in the transport of new batteries on the failure.

2, the vehicle does not work for a long time still.

3, the battery is subject to erosion during the internal resistance increase, causing the situation of insufficient charge.

4, continued over discharge.

5, the temperature impact. For example, when the temperature heats up, with the temperature increase of 10 degrees, salinization rate of 2 times the growth. During the charging period, if the outside temperature is high, when the temperature of the battery reaches 75 degrees, the internal resistance will increase, resulting in insufficient charge situation. When the temperature turns cold, the lubricants of the vehicle become thicker, which requires more power to start the vehicle, that is, the need for greater battery discharge capacity. As a result, the accumulation of salts on the plate was accelerated. If you pay attention to the situation of the battery over discharge, you know this time the battery electrolyte coagulation, this situation greatly hurt the plate. Under normal circumstances, the charge of 100%, the specific gravity of the electrolyte is about 1.27, when the electrolyte coagulation temperature is -83 Fahrenheit; when the proportion of about 1.2, the solidification temperature is -17 Fahrenheit; if the specific gravity of 1.14 ( Also known as complete discharge), then only 8 degrees Fahrenheit.

6, in the case of insufficient charge, the battery can not supply the maximum starting current, so frequent use of vehicles often dead fire. According to the BIC manual, "When using a battery that is not fully charged, it is possible to make the engine slow and idle and can not start and consume power, and in turn, the battery can not get the generator at the best speed. As a result, although the battery is charged with all-weather, it is still not fully charged, and it is often insufficiently charged, and the battery salinization is aggravated, and the battery is completely disabled.

In summary, the sulphate is an inevitable matter of the energy conversion process, but the sulfate crystals are indeed a serious problem, not the sulphate itself, which requires more people to understand the seriousness of the problem - sulfate crystals So that the battery fails. The failure of the phenomenon include:

1, the plate bending: the board somewhere there is a lack of crystallization of sulfate crystals to accept, causing the battery plate somewhere overcharge, and this overcharge so that the temperature here, so that the plate bent.

2, the salt plate on the grid mesh reactors off, will lead to overcharge, plate bending.

3, short circuit: due to salt to increase the internal resistance, plate bending, contact with another polar plate and short circuit or damage to the support plate of the frame.

4, the loss of active substances: salt crystals to increase the internal resistance, resulting in local overcharge, resulting in plate cracks and cracks in the material off.

Therefore, the use of pulse technology to protect the plate is the most appropriate, but also help reduce the mechanical shock caused by damage to the battery plate. In the past, after the battery was salted, it was considered useless and discarded, or pulled away to repair. But now, pulse technology can solve this problem well.